This paper sets out to explore how adoption of a common and consistent set of approaches to tackling ‘water poverty’ may lead to successful outcomes for customers. It is designed to generate debate across all interested stakeholders and to consider ways in which water can be made affordable for all customers. It outlines the different approaches to measuring water poverty which are currently used and discusses the merits of developing a shared understanding of the issue across the water sector. Where possible, learning from the development of ‘fuel poverty’ as a concept has been drawn on, and both the similarities and the differences between the two concepts have been highlighted. The paper sets out four key recommendations that should be further explored to facilitate eradication of water poverty in the UK.